Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in the NICU
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Rubarth, Lori Baas
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was developed for adults but has been used in neonates as a life-saving rescue therapy for infants with respiratory failure and/or cardiac collapse as a result of congenital diaphragmatic hernia, meconium aspiration syndrome, persistent pulmonary hypertension, or systemic sepsis. ECMO has been proven to increase the survival rate for these diseases. This article provides an overview of neonatal ECMO: the history and development of neonatal ECMO, patient selection criteria, clinical management, the ECMO circuit, weaning from ECMO, and possible complications of ECMO.
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